12 July 2012

History of the See of Saint Andrew the First-Called: The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Contantinople

Following the establishment of Constantinople (the ancient city of Byzantium) as the state capital of the Roman Empire in the early part of the fourth century, a series of significant ecclesiastical events saw the status of the Bishop of New Rome (as Constantinople was then called) elevated to its current position and privilege. The Church of Constantinople is traditionally regarded as being founded by St. Andrew, the “first-called” of the Apostles. The 3rd canon of the Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople (381) conferred upon the bishop of this city second rank after the Bishop of Rome. Less than a century later, the 28th canon of the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in Chalcedon (451) offered Constantinople equal ranking to Rome and special responsibilities throughout the rest of the world and expanding its jurisdiction to territories hitherto unclaimed.

The Ecumenical Patriarchate holds an honorary primacy among the autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, Churches. It enjoys the privilege of serving as “first among equals.” It is also known as the “Roman” Patriarchate (hence the Turkish phrase: Rum Patrikhanesi), recalling its historical source as the Church of New Rome, the new capital of the Roman Empire, transferred in 330 from Old Rome to Byzantium by Constantine the Great. The first bishop of the city of Byzantium was St. Stachys (38–54), a disciple of the Apostle Andrew. In 330, Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and New Rome, while its bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric. The Metropolitan of Heraclea, to whom Byzantium was formerly subject, now came under the jurisdiction of Constantinople and enjoyed the privileges of the latter’s most senior see.

As a title, the phrase “Ecumenical Patriarchate” dates from the sixth century and belongs exclusively to the Archbishop of Constantinople. The Great Schism of 1054—in fact the culmination of a gradual estrangement over many centuries—resulted in formal separation between the Churches of the East and the West, granting Constantinople sole authority and jurisdiction over the Orthodox Churches throughout the world.

After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins during the Fourth Crusade (1204), the Ecumenical Patriarchate was transferred to Nicaea (1206), but Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologos restored it to Constantinople when he recaptured the city in 1261. When Constantinople became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1453, the Ecumenical Patriarch (at the time, Gennadius II) was recognized as Ethnarch of the Orthodox peoples, with increased authority over the Eastern Patriarchates and the Balkan Churches, as well as farther afield.

From that time, the Ecumenical Patriarchate became a symbol of unity, rendering service and solidarity to the Eastern Churches. In difficult periods, the Ecumenical Patriarchate was consulted for the resolution of problems. Frequently, patriarchs of other Churches would reside in Constantinople, which was the venue for meetings of the Holy Synod that was chaired by the Ecumenical Patriarch.

The Ecumenical Patriarchate also sponsored missionary growth through the centuries, the most notable of which was the conversion of the Kievan Rus in the tenth century and the most recent of which was the missionary work in Southeast Asia in the last century. This pastoral role and responsibility has earned the characterization of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as “the golden beacon of Orthodoxy, preserving the unwaning brilliance of Christianity.”

Bishops of Byzantium (until 330)
The Apostle St. Andrew was the first to preach the Gospel of Christ in Constantinople, apointing one of the 70, St. Stachys, as her bishop. He went throughout the Black sea region and on to Russia, where he planted a cross at Kiev; however, the full scale conversion of Russia would come much later.

1. St. Andrew the Apostle (founded in 38)
2. St. Stachys the Apostle (38-54)
3. St. Onesimus (54-68)
4. Polycarpus I (69-89)
5. Plutarch (89-105)
6. Sedecion (105-114)
7. Diogenes (114-129)
8. Eleutherius (129-136)
9. Felix (136-141)
10. Polycarpus II (141-144)
11. Athenodorus (144-148)
12. Euzois (148-154)
13. Laurence (154-166)
14. Alypius (166-169)
15. Pertinax (169-187)
16. Olympianus (187-198)
17. Mark I or Marcus I (198-211)
18. Philadelphus (211-217)
19. Cyriacus I (217-230)
20. Castinus (230-237)
21. Eugenius I (237-242)
22. Titus (242-272)
23. Dometius (272-284)
24. Rufinus I (284-293)
25. Probus (293-306)
26. St. Metrophanes (306-314)
27. St. Alexander (314-337)

Archbishops of Constantinople (330–451 inclusive)
On May 11, 330 the town of Constantinople was consecrated by the Roman emperor Constantine I on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, thus becoming the capital of the East Roman Empire (known also as Byzantine Empire).

28. St. Paul I the Confessor (337-339, 341-342, 346-350)
29. Eusebius of Nicomedia (339-341)
30. Macedonius I (342-346, 351-360)
31. Eudoxius of Antioch (360-370)
32. Evagrius (370)
33. Demophilus (370-380)
34. Maximus I (380)
35. Gregory I Nazianzus the Theologian (379-381)
36. Nectarius (381-397)
37. St. John Chrysostom (398-404)
38. Arsacius of Tarsus (404-405)
39. Atticus (406-425)
40. Sisinnius I (426-427)
41. Nestorius (428-431)
42. Maximianus (431-434)
43. St. Proclus (434-446)
44. Flavian (446-449)

Patriarchs of Constantinople (since 451)

45. Anatolius (449-458) (Patriarch from 451-458)
46. Gennadius I (458-471)
47. Acacius (471-488)
48. Fravitas (488-489)
49. Euphemius (489-495)
50. Macedonius II (495-511)
51. Timothy I (511-518)
52. John II the Cappadocian (518-520)
53. Epiphanius (520-535)
54. Anthimus I (535-536)
55. Menas (536-552)
56. Eutychius (552-565, 577-582)
57. John III Scholasticus (565-577)
58. John IV Nesteutes (582-595)
59. Cyriacus (596-606)
60. St. Thomas I (607-610)
61. Sergius I (610-638)
62. Pyrrhus I (638-641, 654)
63. Paul II (641-653)
64. Peter (654-666)
65. Thomas II (667-669)
66. John V (669-675)
67. Constantine I (675-677)
68. Theodore I (677-679)
69. George I (679-686)
70. Paul III (687-693)
71. Callinicus I (693-705)
72. Cyrus (705-711)
73. John VI (712-715)
74. Germanus I (715-730)
75. Anastasius (730-754)
76. Constantine II (754-766)
77. Nicetas I (766-780)
78. Paul IV (780-784)
79. Saint Tarasius (784-806)
80. Nicephorus I (806-815)
81. Theodotus I Kassiteras (815-821)
82. Antony I (821-836)
83. John VII Grammaticus (836-843)
84. Methodius I (843-847)
85. Ignatius I (847-858, 867-877)
86. Photius I the Great (858-867, 877-886)
87. Stephen I (886-893)
88. Antony II Kauleas (893-901)
89. Nicholas I Mystikos (901-907, 912-925)
90. Euthymius I Synkellos (907-912)
91. Stephen II of Amasea (925-928)
92. Tryphon, also Tryphonius (928-931)
93. Theophylactus (933-956)
94. Polyeuctus (956-970)
95. Basil I Scamandrenus (970-974)
96. Antony III the Studite (974-980)
97. Nicholas II Chrysoberges (984-996)
98. Sisinnius II (996-998)
99. Sergius II (999-1019)
100. Eustathius (1019-1025)
101. Alexius I the Studite (1025-1043)
102. Michael I Cerularius (1043-1058)
103. Constantine III Leichoudes (1059-1063)
104. John VIII Xiphilinos (1064-1075)
105. Kosmas I (1075-1081)
106. Eustratius Garidas (1081-1084)
107. Nicholas III Grammaticus (1084-1111)
108. John IX Agapetus (1111-1134)
109. Leo Styppeiotes (1134-1143)
110. Michael II Kourkouas (1143-1146)
111. Cosmas II Atticus (1146-1147)
112. Nicholas IV Muzalon (1147-1151)
113. Theodotus II (1151-1153)
114. Neophytos I (1154)
115. Constantine IV Chliarenus (1154-1156)
116. Luke Chrysoberges (1156-1169)
117. Michael III of Anchialus (1170-1177)
118. Chariton (1177-1178)
119. Theodosius I Boradiotes (1179-1183)
120. Basil II Kamateros (1183-1186)
121. Niketas II Mountanes (1186-1189)
122. Leo Theotokites (1189-1190)
123. Dositheus (1190-1191)
124. George II Xiphilinos (1191-1198)
125. John X Kamateros (1198-1206)
126. Michael IV Autoreianos (1207-1213)
127. Theodore II Eirenikos (1213-1215)
128. Maximos II (1215)
129. Manuel I Charitopoulos (1216-1222)
130. Germanus II (1223-1240)
131. Methodius II (1240)
132. Manuel II (1240-1255)
133. Arsenius Autoreianus (1255-1259, 1261-1267)
134. Nicephorus II (1260-1261)
135. Germanus III (1267)
136. Joseph I Galesiotes (1267-1275)
137. John XI Bekkos (1275-1282)
138. Gregory II Cyprius (1283-1289)
139. Athanasius I (1289-1293, 1303-1310)
140. John XII (1294-1303)
141. Nephon I (1310-1314)
142. John XIII Glykys (1315-1320)
143. Gerasimos I (1320-1321)
144. Isaias (1323-1334)
145. John XIV Kalekas (1334-1347)
146. Isidore I (1347-1350)
147. Callistus I (1350-1354, 1355-1363)
148. Philotheus Kokkinos (1354-1355, 1364-1376)
149. Macarius (1376-1379, 1390-1391)
150. Nilus Kerameus (1379-1388)
151. Antony IV (1389-1390, 1391-1397)
152. Callistus II Xanthopoulos (1397)
153. Matthew I (1397-1410)
154. Euthymius II (1410-1416)
155. Joseph II (1416-1439)
156. Metrophanes II (1440-1443)
157. Gregory III Mammas (1443-1450)
158. Athanasius II (1450-1453)

On May 29, 1453 occurred the Fall of Constantinople, thus marking the end of the Byzantine Empire. The Ecumenical Patriarchate became subject to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire made the EPoC elect a new Patriarchate regularly (and charge them for the privledge of doing so) and so many times the same bishop would be elected numerous times in his life.

159. Gennadius II Scholarios (1454-1456, Apr 1463 - June 1463, Aug 1464 - aut. 1465)
160. Isidore II Xanthopoulos (1456-1462)
161. Joasaph I (Apr 1462 - Apr 1463)
162. Sophronius I (Jun 1463 - Aug 1464)
163. Mark II (aut. 1465 - aut. 1466)
164. Symeon I of Trebizond (au. 1466 - end 1466, 1471-1475, 1482-1486)
165. Dionysius I (end 1466-1471, 1488-1490)
166. Raphael I (1475-1476)
167. Maximus III (1476-1482)
168. Nephon II (1486-1488, 1497-1498, 1502)
169. Maximus IV (1491-1497)
170. Joachim I (1498-1502, 1504)
171. Pachomius I (1503-1504, 1504-1513)
172. Theoleptus I (1513-1522)
173. Jeremias I (1522-1524, 1525-1546)
174. Joannicius I (1524-1525)
175. Dionysius II (1546-1556)
176. Joasaph II (1556-1565)
177. Metrophanes III (1565-1572, 1579-1580)
178. Jeremias II Tranos (1572-1579, 1580-1584, 1587-1595)
179. Pachomius II (1584-1585)
180. Theoleptus II (1585-1586)
181. Matthew II (1596, 1598-1602, 1603)
182. Gabriel I (1596)
183. Theophanes I Karykes (locum tenens, 1596)
184. Meletius I Pegas (locum tenens, 1597)
185. Theophanes I Karykes (1597)
186. Meletius I Pegas (locum tenens, 1597-1598)
187. Neophytus II (1602-1603. 1607-1612)
188. Raphael II (1603-1607)
189. Cyril I Lucaris (locum tenens, 1612, 1620-1623, 1623-1633, 1633-1634, 1634-1635, 1637-1638)
190. Timothy II (1612-1620)
191. Gregory IV (1623)
192. Anthimus II (1623)
193. Cyril II Kontares (1633, 1635-1636, 1638-1639)
194. Athanasius III Patelaros (1634, 1652)
195. Neophytus III of Nicea (1636-1637)
196. Parthenius I (1639-1644)
197. Parthenius II (1644-1646, 1648-1651)
198. Joannicius II (1646-1648, 1651-1652, 1653-1654, 1655-1656)
199. Cyril III (1652-1652, 1654)
200. Paisius I (1652-1653)
201. Parthenius III (1656-1657)
202. Gabriel II (1657)
203. Parthenius IV (1657-1659, 1659-1662, 1665-1667, 1671, 1675-1676, 1684-1685)
204. Theophanes II (1659)
205. Dionysius III (1662-1665)
206. Clement (1667)
207. Methodius III (1668-1671)
208. Dionysius IV Muselimes (1671-1673, 1676-1679, 1682-1684, 1686-1687, 1693-1694)
209. Gerasimus II (1673-1674)
210. Athanasius IV (1679)
211. James (1679-1682, 1685-1686, 1687-1688)
212. Callinicus II (1688, 1689-1693, 1694-1702)
213. Neophytus IV (1688)
214. Gabriel III (1702-1707)
215. Neophytus V (1707)
216. Cyprianus I (1707-1709, 1713-1714)
217. Athanasius V (1709-1711)
218. Cyril IV (1711-1713)
219. Cosmas III (1714-1716)
220. Jeremias III (1716-1726, 1732-1733)

Not counted in this number is Callinicus III (1726) He reposed on the day of his election, but before his enthronement)

221. Paisius II (1726-1732, 1740-1743, 1744-1748, 1751-1752)
222. Serapheim I (1733-1734)
223. Neophytus VI (1734-1740, 1743-1744)
224. Cyril V (1748-1751, 1752-1757)
225. Callinicus IV (1757)
226. Serapheim II (1757-1761)
227. Joannicius III (1761-1763)
228. Samuel I Chatzeres (1763-1768, 1773-1774)
229. Meletius II (1769-1769)
230. Theodosius II (1769-1773)
231. Sophronius II (1774-1780)
232. Gabriel IV (1780-1785)
233. Procopius I (1785-1789)
234. Neophytus VII (1789-1794, 1798-1801)
235. Gerasimus III (1794-1797)
236. Gregory V (1797-1798, 1806-1808, 1818-1821)
237. Callinicus V (1801-1806, 1808-1809)
238. Jeremias IV (1809-1813)
239. Cyril VI (1813-1818)
240. Eugenius II (1821-1822)
241. Anthimus III (1822-1824)
242. Chrysanthus I (1824-1826)
243. Agathangelus I (1826-1830)
244. Constantius I (1830-1834)

On July 23, 1833 the Church of Greece declared itself autocephalous. It was followed by the Romanian Orthodox Church in 1864, Bulgarian Exarchate in 1872, Serbian Church in 1879, thus reducing the extension of the Ecumenical Patriarchate

245. Constantius II (1834-1835)
246. Gregory VI (1835-1840, 1867-1871)
247. Anthimus IV (1840-1841, 1848-1852)
248. Anthimus V (1841-1842)
249. Germanus IV (1842-1845, 1852-1853)
250. Meletius III (1845)
251. Anthimus VI (1845-1848, 1853-1855, 1871-1873)
252. Cyril VII (1855-1860)
253. Joachim II (1860-1863, 1873-1878)
254. Sophronius III (1863-1866)
255. Joachim III (1878-1884, 1901-1912, 1901-1912)
256. Joachim IV (1884-1887)
257. Dionysius V (1887-1891)
258. Neophytus VIII (1891-1894)
259. Anthimus VII (1895-1896)
260. Constantine V (1897-1901)
261. Germanus V (1913-1918)
262. Meletius IV Metaxakis (1921-1923)

On July 24, 1923 the Ottoman Empire dissolved, replaced by the Republic of Turkey

263. Gregory VII (1923-1924)
264. Constantine VI (1924-1925)
265. Basil III (1925-1929)
266. Photius II (1929-1935)
267. Benjamin I (1936-1946)
268. Maximus V (1946-1948)
269. Athenagoras I (1948-1972)
270. Demetrios I (1972-1991)
271. Bartholomew I (1991-Present)



Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...